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A geographic information system (GIS) is a system that creates, manages, analyzes, and maps all types of data. GIS connects data to a map, integrating location data (where things are) with all types of descriptive information (what things are like there). This provides a foundation for mapping and analysis that is used in science and almost every industry. GIS helps users understand patterns, relationships, and geographic context. The benefits include improved communication and efficiency as well as better management and decision making. Source

  Spatial Analysis: GIS helps researchers analyze the spatial relationships and patterns in various types of data. For example, it can be used to study the distribution of historical sites, demographic trends, or the spread of diseases.

  Cultural Heritage Preservation: GIS is used to document and preserve cultural heritage sites, including archaeological sites, historical landmarks, and cultural landscapes.

  Urban Studies: GIS is employed to study urban environments, including aspects like transportation patterns, land use, and social demographics.

  Environmental Studies: GIS is crucial for assessing environmental conditions, monitoring changes in landscapes, and understanding the impact of human activities on the environment.

The most commonly used tools, software, and programs for GIS/Mapping are as follows:

  ArcGIS: ArcGIS is one of the most widely used GIS software packages. It provides a comprehensive suite of tools for spatial analysis, mapping, and data visualization.

  QGIS: QGIS is a free, open-source alternative to ArcGIS. It's a powerful platform for creating, editing, and analyzing spatial data.

  Carto: This is a cloud-based platform for data visualization and spatial analysis. It's particularly popular for creating interactive web maps.

  Google Earth/Google Maps: These popular web-based mapping platforms are often used for basic spatial visualization and exploration.

  PostGIS: This is a spatial database extender for PostgreSQL, enabling geospatial objects to be stored, queried, and processed within a PostgreSQL database.

  Leaflet: Leaflet is an open-source JavaScript library for mobile-friendly interactive maps. It's often used for web-based mapping applications.

  Tableau: While Tableau includes many digital humanities tools, it is also a mapping tool.

  GRASS GIS: Another open-source GIS software, GRASS GIS is known for its advanced geospatial analytics and modeling capabilities.

Useful Links

ArcGIS Tutorial Series

Map Info

Map Info Tutorial Videos

Online Workshop for Carto

Book: GIS Fundamentals

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